It supports the Chashma Barrage near Dera Ismail Khan for irrigation use and flood control and the Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan which also produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. [36] Many of the species of the middle sections of the Indus basin are also present in the lower. In many cases, old canals and inundation channels in the Sindh and Punjab regions were revived and modernized. Flowing West, it enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu & Kashmir. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). Zanskar and Indus river confluence, in Ladakh 5. In India, the basin spreads over states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh Join StudySoup for FREE Uzma Khan, director of biodiversity at WWF Pakistan told APP that the Indus river blind dolphin is an endangered species of the fresh waters and is only found in the Indus river system… [citation needed], Southworth suggests that the name Sindhu is derived from Cintu, a Dravidian word for date palm, a tree commonly found in Sindh. Ravi, Beas, Satluj, Jhelam, Kishenganga (Neelum) and Chenab. During his reign, the Greek explorer Scylax of Caryanda was commissioned to explore the course of the Indus. The rest of the portion lies in Pakistan. The Indus and its tributaries get their waters from the hilly upper parts of their catchments. [42], The ethnicities of the Indus Valley (Pakistan and Northwest India) have a greater amount of ANI (or West Eurasian) admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west. Kailash near Mansarovar Lake in Tibet; It flows westwards and enters into India in Jammu and Kashmir, further flows through Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and enters Pakistan. Indus River is one of the longest rivers in the world and has a length of around 2,000 miles (3,200 km). It enters Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir by forming a picturesque gorge. This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu and the Persians as Hindu which was regarded by both of them as "the border river". Indus river system: a. Indus: The river originates in Bokhar Chu glacier in Mt. 3. Source – Gangotri glacier (7,010 m), Uttar Kashi District, Uttarakhand. The Indus river follows a long and straight course in Ladakh, running between the Ladakh and the Zaskar ranges. [5] The Indus is the longest river of Pakistan.[6]. This lever has a total length of 2897 km and finally terminates at the Arabian Sea. A little over one third of the Indus basin is located in state of Jammu and Kashmir, Himanchal Pradesh and Punjab. Video of River Indus at Kotri Barrage, Sindh, Pakistan. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto, نهر السند (Nahar al-Sind) in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། (singi khamban lit. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km (17 mi) from Delhi. Latest Updates. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. Origin: The Indus River originates near the Mansarovar Lake in the Tibetan plateau, on the northern slopes of the Kailash Mountain Range. 1972 C. 1983 D. 1992. Deeply, deeply concerned. Seven of the rivers in this system (Table CS3.1) cover most of the system’s drainage area of … Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time. "But we need to be concerned about that. It creates the border between the Rechna (between Ravi and … [43], Originally, the delta used to receive almost all of the water from the Indus river, which has an annual flow of approximately 180 billion cubic metres (240 billion cubic yards), and is accompanied by 400 million tonnes (390 million long tons) of silt. The Indus River came into the knowledge of the West early in the classical period, when King Darius of Persia sent his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river, c. 515 BC. [36] In some upland lakes and tributaries of the Punjab region snowtrout and mahseer are still common, but once the Indus basin reaches its lower plain the former group is entirely absent and the latter are rare. It flows parallely to the Pir Panjal Range. before the collision of Indian Plate with the Eurasian plate. River Zaskar 8. Its estimated annual flow averages 58 cubic miles, making it the twenty-first largest liver in the world in terms of annual flow. Pakistan needed the Indus river system to survive as it is the only river system that supports the country considering the fact that 92 … The first two join the Indus soon after it leaves the mountains, and the others lower down in the plains. The average annual water flow of River Indus is 243 cubic kilometres. Get Full Access to AU - GEOG 1010 - Study Guide. River Indus Enters India In Ladakh 4. [36] The lowermost part of the river and its delta are home to freshwater fish, but also a number of brackish and marine species. It is believed to display a tidal bore, which is a phenomenon observed only in a few rivers. The treaty fixed and delimited the rights and obligations of both countries concerning the use of the waters of the Indus River system. Under Clause 13 of the WAA ’91, the need to establish an Indus River System Authority was recognized and accepted for the implementation of the Accord. In the uppermost, highest part of the Indus River basin there are relatively few genera and species: Diptychus, Ptychobarbus, Schizopyge, Schizopygopsis and Schizothorax snowtrout, Triplophysa loaches, and the catfish Glyptosternon reticulatum. [39] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal – linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers – extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length of about 2897 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea out of which approx 700km lies in India. [13][14] From the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name passed to the Greeks as Indós (Ἰνδός). The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains – it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season.The river is known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage. Length of the river: 3200 kilometer (2000 mile) It passes through Ladakh district in Kashmir. Save Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi – standing 2,743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80-kilometre (50 mi) long reservoir. This flood system may have been the Indus Valleys greatest triumph as they had harnessed the power to control the annual floods to their advantage, without the devastating impact that came with the flourishing of crops. [30] Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time. 2. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. The rest of the portion lies in Pakistan. It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length of about 2897 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea out of which approx 700km lies in India. [3] It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. This happened two centuries after the Indus river shifted its course westwards following the 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake. • ‘The Indus Valley Civilization’ was born around this river. [40][41] Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. Aartee Mishra. [8][9][10][11][12] The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change *s > h, which occurred between 850 and 600 BCE according to Asko Parpola. As a result, damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. It is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan rivers in India. Forgot password? The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region of South Asia, while the lower course of the river ends in a large delta in the southern Sindh province of Pakistan. The Indus people needed river water to drink, wash and to irrigate their fields. Jean Fairley, "The Lion River", Karachi, 1978. Indus River System is made of Indus River and its tributaries viz. The right bank side is also leveed from Guddu barrage to Lake Manchar. In Sindh, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. Here, the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. There are several other tributaries nearby, which may possibly form a longer stream than Sênggê Kanbab, but unlike the Sênggê Kanbab, are all dependent on snowmelt. Kilometres or 4,50,000 Sq. The Indus River is one of the most beautiful rivers of India.Together with its tributaries, the Indus River forms an important river system, which helps the agricultural economy of India. The indus river system 1. The Indus river has two main tributaries, the Kabul on the right bank and the Panjnad on the left. Sênggê Zangbo, Senge Khabab) or "Lion's Mouth", a perennial spring, not far from the sacred Mount Kailash marked by a long low line of Tibetan chortens. The Indus Originates in the Tibetan Plateau and flows through three Asian Countries, that are India, China and Pakistan. [45] This has reduced the flow of water and by 2018, the average annual flow of water below the Kotri barrage was 33 billion cubic metres (43 billion cubic yards),[46] and annual amount of silt discharged was estimated at 100 million tonnes (98 million long tons). • Just above Mithankot, the Indus receives from Panjnad (Panchnad), the accumulated waters of the Indus river system is discussed. The first West Eurasian empire to annex the Indus Valley was the Persian Empire, during the reign of Darius the Great. {Antecedent Drainage} It forms a picturesque gorge in this part. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres (15,000–17,000 feet) deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. This has reduced the flow of water a… It drains an area of 11,65,500 Palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. 710 km in India Jhelum Verinag 720 km Chenab Bara Lacha Pass 1180 km Ravi Near Rohtang Pass 725 km Beas Near Rohtang Pass 460 km Satluj Manasarovar-Rakas Lakes 1450 km total 1050 km in India Indus River System D.K. Due to the success of their water systems and overall sanitation, the population of the Indus valley grew. In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface.[32]. The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. The Indus arises from the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar. The Government of Pakistan established the Indus River System Authority in the year_____? 11,65,000 Sq. The large delta has been recognized by conservationists as an important ecological region. Only about 1,100 of this unique species exist today in the lower parts of the Indus River in Pakistan. Lenth is 2,525 km in India. The Zanskar River, which flows into the Indus in Ladakh, has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point.[24]. The Indus Valley System. [4] Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of India[a] towards Gilgit-Baltistan, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. [33], The Indus river dolphin (Platanista indicus minor) is found only in the Indus River. The river has developed antecedent drainage in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Its principal right-bank tributaries are the Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Kurram and Gomal rivers. The river cuts a deep gorge near Kistwar, It enters the plain area near Akhnur in Jammu and Kashmir and is subsequently connected with the Jhelum. Damming has also isolated the delta population of Indus river dolphins from those further upstream. Together with its tributaries, the Indus River forms an important river system, which helps the agricultural economy of India. The Himalayan Rivers existed even before the formation of Himalayas i.e. The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed in Karachi on 19 September 1962 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistani President Ayub Khan.. The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. Another new barrage called "Sindh Barrage" is planned as a terminal barrage on the Indus River. High levels of pollutants in the river have led to the deaths of endangered Indus river dolphin. They constitute the Indus River system. So, their flow remains the maximum when they co… Several tributaries like, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok, and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region. The Indus river dolphin formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages)[1][2] is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. The Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. Indus Valley Civilization is the one of the oldest ancient civilizations of the world.Indus River Valley Civilization was discovered by the archaeologists in the 1920s. They constitute the Indus River system. Partly frozen river Indus 7. Indus River System Authority Water Apportionment Accord (WAA) was signed amongst the Provinces on 16.03.1991 and approved by the Council of Common Interests (CCI) on 21.03.1991. >>>>> >>>>> Ganga River. It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. Indus river is a west-flowing river that originates in the Tibetan plateau near Lake Mansarovar. Modern irrigation engineering work commenced about 1850, and, during the period of British administration, large canal systems were constructed. [67] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh. 3,249 km (2,019 mi) actual as mentioned in History Books. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g. The Indus Valley were later dominated by the Mauryan and Kushan Empires, Indo-Greek Kingdoms, Indo-Scythians and Hepthalites. A little over one third of the Indus basin is located in state of Jammu and Kashmir, Himanchal Pradesh and Punjab. [72] In response to the levees construction, the river has been aggrading rapidly over the last 20 years leading to breaches upstream of barrages and inundation of large areas.[73]. to enroll in courses, follow best educators, interact with the community and track your progress. [51], Large-scale diversion of the river's water for irrigation has raised far-reaching issues. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. The Indus river, the Ganga river and the Brahmaputra river comprise the Himalayan river systems. Major carp become common, and chameleonfish (Badis), mullet (Sicamugil) and swamp eel (Monopterus) appear. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country. [21][22] Presently, Indus water flows in to the Rann of Kutch during its floods breaching flood banks. The Indus river system consists of glaciers and snows as it has tributaries that flow through the glaciers of Himalayas, Karakoram ranges and the Hindu Kush mountain ranges. To account for the maintenance of this cooperation the paper argues that it is necessary to consider the design of the Permanent Indus Commission, an institution established to manage the Indus River. Originates from the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar. Miles. It enters India from the states of Jammu and Kashmir. It is one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages) is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. Notable examples of genera that are present in the lower plain but generally not elsewhere in the Indus River basin are the Aphanius pupfish, Aplocheilus killifish, palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha), catla (Labeo catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and Cirrhinus mrigala. Press Release; Vacancies; Tender Notice; Contacts; Login. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centers. One of the largest river basin in the world. After Pakistan came into existence, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two tributaries the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independently of upstream control by India.[38]. It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. 08th December, 2020. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Pakistan, Iran border to Kutch in modern Gujarat, India. Fig : Indus River The Indus basin extends over China (Tibet), India, Afghanistan and Pakistan . Industrial Activities, Industrial waste disposal and Plastic waste. The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. The Indus river has two main tributaries, the Kabul on the right bank and the Panjnad on the left. Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. Downriver from around Thakot, Tarbela, the Kabul–Indus river confluence, Attock Khurd and Peshawar the diversity rises strongly, including many cyprinids (Amblypharyngodon, Aspidoparia, Barilius, Chela, Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus, Cyprinion, Danio, Devario, Esomus, Garra, Labeo, Naziritor, Osteobrama, Pethia, Puntius, Rasbora, Salmophasia, Securicula and Systomus), true loaches (Botia and Lepidocephalus), stone loaches (Acanthocobitis and Nemacheilus), ailiid catfish (Clupisoma), bagridae catfish (Batasio, Mystus, Rita and Sperata), airsac catfish (Heteropneustes), schilbid catfish (Eutropiichthys), silurid catfish (Ompok and Wallago), sisorid catfish (Bagarius, Gagata, Glyptothorax and Sisor), gouramis (Trichogaster), nandid leaffish (Nandus), snakeheads (Channa), spiny eel (Macrognathus and Mastacembelus), knifefish (Notopterus), glassfish (Chanda and Parambassis), clupeids (Gudusia), needlefish (Xenentodon) and gobies (Glossogobius), as well as a few introduced species. The Indus water system of rivers comprises the main Indus and its major tributaries: the Kabul River and Kurram River on the right bank, and the Jhelum River, Chenab River, Ravi River, Beas River and the Sutlej on the left. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Indus River System. The Indus river dolphin resides in the Indus river system of Pakistan and the Ganges river dolphin in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Mcq Added by: Jack Sparrow. Himalayan Rivers … km (in India it is 321, 289 sq. India can use nearly 20% of the total water carried by the Indus river system. Major Rivers of Indus River System Source Length Indus Glaciers of Kailas Range (Close to Manasarovar Lake) 2880 km total. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the Satnad River (sat = "seven", nadī = "river"), as the river now carried the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times – it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh, India, and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. Printable Blank India Outline Map for UPSC Preparation | How to Study India Outline Map for UPSC IAS Exam? [56][57] As a result, the government banned fishing from Guddu Barrage to Sukkur. The Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. [67] Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. The lower basin of the Indus forms a natural boundary between the Iranian Plateau and the Indian subcontinent; this region embraces all or parts of the Pakistani provinces Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh and the countries Afghanistan and India. It also serves as the main source of drinking water for the people of this region. The important facts about the rivers are a. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. According to the World Wildlife Fund it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing. Indus River System D.K. [23] Heavy rains had left the river basin along with the Lake Manchar, Lake Hemal and Kalri Lake (all in modern-day Pakistan) inundated. The River Indus has many tributaries on the left as well as on the right side. In this article, read about the hydrology system, flora and fauna and climate around the river. Alexander's admiral Nearchus set out from the Indus Delta to explore the Persian Gulf, until reaching the Tigris River. [citation needed] Other variants of the name Sindhu include Assyrian Sinda (as early as the 7th century BC), Persian Ab-e-sind, Pashto Abasind, Arab Al-Sind, Chinese Sintow, and Javanese Santri. [55] Death of the Indus river dolphin has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up. The Indus River is one of the most beautiful rivers of India. River basin. The Indus System of Rivers comprises three western rivers — the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab — and three eastern rivers — the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi. A. It is joined by numerous tributaries, notably those of the eastern Punjab Plain—the … The Indus River System ( Lake Mansarovar→ J&K→Pakistan) It rises in Tibet near Lake Mansarovar/ Mapam. The Indus serves as a home to 180 species of freshwater fish, out of which 22 species of fishes are not found in any other river or sea. [35], The Indus River basin has a high diversity, being the home of more than 180 freshwater fish species,[36] including 22 which are found nowhere else. The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic world, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. "Indus Valley" redirects here. ISLAMABAD, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News - 18th May, 2020 ) :Indus River System Authority (IRSA) Monday released 209,000 cusecs water from various rim stations with inflow of 201,300 cusecs.. Since the 1940s, dams, barrages and irrigation works have been constructed on the river Indus. To the Indus people, their river was ‘The King River’. The Rigveda describes several rivers, including one named "Sindhu". According to this treaty, India can utilize only 20 per cent of its total discharge of water. 1960 B. [64][65], The 2011 Sindh floods began during the Pakistani monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan, and southern Punjab. One of the longest rivers in the world, the Sindhu has a total length of over 2,000 miles and runs south from the Kailash Mountain in Tibet all the way to the Arabian Sea in Karachi, Pakistan. In the Kashmir region, it joins with many tributaries – the Zaskar, the Shyok, the Nubra and the Hunza. The Indus river system in Kashmir is a river system that sustains communities in both India and Pakistan. The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar. The river Tibet starts in Tibet, near lake Mansarowar. The Indus River rises from the lofty mountains of Himalayas around Mansarovar Lake in Tibet at an elevation of 5,182 m. Its principal tributaries in India are the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj, all joining from left. Indus River System. The Sindhu River, also commonly referred to as the Indus River, is a major waterway in South Asia. The Indus acts as the main source of water supply for Pakistan. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Kailash) mountain ranges. [69][70] There are some bridges on river Indus, such as, Dadu Moro Bridge, Larkana Khairpur Indus River Bridge, Thatta-Sujawal bridge, Jhirk-Mula Katiar bridge and recently planned Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge. Finally, the river emerges out of the mountains near Attock where it receiv… The smooth-coated otters in the Indus River represent a subspecies found nowhere else, the Sindh otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica). The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. According to the data released by IRSA, water level in the Indus River at Tarbela Dam was 1460.90 feet, which was 74.90 feet higher than its dead level 1386 feet. In November 2011, satellite images showed that the Indus river had re-entered India, feeding Great Rann of Kutch, Little Rann of Kutch and a lake near Ahmedabad known as Nal Sarovar. For instance, the flow is bare minimum during the winter months (December to February); there is a rise the level of water in spring and early summer (March to June), and floods are bound to happen during the rainy season (July to September).

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