Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties. [75][76][77] Bloom can be reversed by retempering the chocolate or using it for any use that requires melting the chocolate. [57], It is important to harvest the pods when they are fully ripe, because if the pod is unripe, the beans will have a low cocoa butter content, or sugars in the white pulp will be insufficient for fermentation, resulting in a weak flavor. ... and part of that foam is left on the lips and around the mouth, and when it is red for having achiote, it seems a horrific thing, because it seems like blood itself."[19]. The liquor is pressed to remove the cocoa butter, which leaves a powdery disc known as “cocoa presscake.” Presscake, when pulverized, becomes common cocoa powder. You can help by eating more dark chocolate", "Agriculture in Ethiopia and Uganda: Not so fair trade",, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from January 2021, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Glossy, firm, best snap, melts near body temperature (37 °C), Dark chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, and (sometimes) vanilla, Milk chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, milk or milk powder, and vanilla, White chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, milk or milk powder, and vanilla. Cocoa, highly concentrated powder made from a paste prepared from cocoa beans of the cacao tree and used in beverages and as a flavoring ingredient. Approximately 65% of the fat in milk chocolate is saturated, mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid, while the predominant unsaturated fat is oleic acid (table). With these raw materials we can make all of the different types of chocolate. [81] Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects in humans, but the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, including dogs and cats. [22], While Columbus had taken cacao beans with him back to Spain,[20] chocolate made no impact until Spanish friars introduced it to the Spanish court. A "cocoa product" is defined as a food product that is sourced from cocoa beans and contains "cocoa nibs, cocoa liquor, cocoa mass, unsweetened chocolate, bitter chocolate, chocolate liquor, cocoa, low-fat cocoa, cocoa powder, or low-fat cocoa powder". [5], Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. [70], The temperature in which the crystals obtain enough energy to break apart from their rigid conformation would depend on the milk fat content in the chocolate and the shape of the fat molecules, as well as the form of the cocoa butterfat. Chocolate made from unfermented cocoa beans does not have the body and richness as chocolate made from fermented cocoa beans. [51] The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (6–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3–4 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighing about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe. It is 59% carbohydrates (52% as sugar and 3% as dietary fiber), 30% fat and 8% protein (table). To make Dutched cocoa powder, chocolate liquor is pumped into giant hydraulic presses, where about half of the cocoa butter is squeezed out. Nestlé acquired Rowntree's in 1988 and now markets chocolates under their brand, including Smarties (a chocolate candy) and Kit Kat (a chocolate bar); Kraft Foods through its 1990 acquisition of Jacobs Suchard, now owns Milka and Suchard. [26], New processes that sped the production of chocolate emerged early in the Industrial Revolution. Recent genetic studies suggest the most common genotype of the plant originated in the Amazon basin and was gradually transported by humans throughout South and Central America. Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are: Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate. Baking chocolate, also called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar. An investigation in high-priced chocolate", "Chocolate industry avoids collapse as genome published", "Chocolate is on track to go extinct in 40 years", "Criollo Chocolate: Efficient Food of the Gods", "Sensational Chocolates: Discover the Intense Robust flavor of 100% 'Grand Cru' Chocolate", "Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity", "2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food", "Division 4: Cocoa and Chocolate Products", "Conching: Crucial Step in Chocolate's Flavor and Texture? The earliest signs of use are associated with Olmec sites (within what would become Mexico’s post-colonial territory) suggesting consumption of chocolate beverages, dating from the 19th century BC. During the process of harvesting and drying the seeds, it is highly likely that a bug or two might make its way into chocolate, just like it’s highly likely that a bug or two has made it into orange juice or canned peaches. The effectiveness of fair trade has been questioned. [25] By 1662, Pope Alexander VII had declared that religious fasts were not broken by consuming chocolate drinks. The six different crystal forms have different properties. Yet it is a drink very much esteemed among the Indians, wherewith they feast noble men who pass through their country. By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture. Chocolate with a higher fat content will melt at a lower temperature.[71]. The glossy shine, snap, aroma, texture, and taste of the chocolate can show the quality and if it was stored well.[79]. Cacao powder is made from a dried paste of pressed cacao nibs, which concentrates that dark chocolate flavor even further. [37] A higher amount of cocoa solids indicates more bitterness. Chocolate may be a factor for heartburn in some people because one of its constituents, theobromine, may affect the esophageal sphincter muscle in a way that permits stomach acids to enter the esophagus. The Spaniards, both men, and women, that are accustomed to the country, are very greedy of this Chocolaté. Trinitario originated in Trinidad after an introduction of forastero to the local criollo crop. It is a general word used to refer to several food groups which are created from the finest beans of cacao. Chocolate is made from cacao beans — or rather seeds — from the Theobroma cacao tree. [67][69] The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. Chocolate is a popular flavour of ice cream and pudding, and chocolate sauce is a commonly added as a topping on ice cream sundaes. [82], According to a 2005 study, the average lead concentration of cocoa beans is ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. The Spruce Eats uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience and for our, The 8 Best Chocolates for Valentine’s Day. [38], Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. [14] Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875, Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could easily be molded into smooth shapes. Cacao trees are small, understory trees that need rich, well-drained soils. Fairtrade seeks to establish a system of direct trade from developing countries to counteract this unfair system. The origin of the Nahuatl word is uncertain, as it does not appear in any early Nahuatl source, where the word for chocolate drink is cacahuatl, "cacao water". It is also known to last for two years if stored properly. To make chocolate, cocoa farmers crack open the pods, scoop out the seeds, ferment them and dry them. So that’s why real chocolate -- really good chocolate -- melts in your mouth. In the United States, some large chocolate manufacturers lobbied the federal government to permit confections containing cheaper hydrogenated vegetable oil in place of cocoa butter to be sold as "chocolate". "Cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, sugar and milk powder. 100-grams of milk chocolate is an excellent source (over 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of riboflavin, vitamin B12 and the dietary minerals, manganese, phosphorus and zinc. [8][7] The residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink. [10] Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life. Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface, such as a stone slab, until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal "seeds"; the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. The newly mixed chocolate travels through a series of rollers to smooth out the texture before traveling to the conching machine. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018. The finest, plain dark chocolate couverture contains at least 70% cocoa (both solids and butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. Once heated, the crystals of the polymorphic cocoa butter can break apart from the rigid structure and allow the chocolate to obtain a more fluid consistency as the temperature increases – the melting process. 2011;15(10):2779-2811. children involved in the farming of cocoa, List of bean-to-bar chocolate manufacturers, Salvation Army International Development (SAID) UK, Cuestión moral: si el chocolate quebranta el ayuno eclesiástico, "Consumían olmecas chocolate hace 3000 años", "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 1200–1521 – Obtaining Cacao", "Child labour: the true cost of chocolate production", "Falling cocoa prices threaten child labor spike in Ghana, Ivory Coast", "Earliest Evidence of Chocolate in North America", "New Chemical Analyses Take Confirmation Back 500 Years and Reveal that the Impetus for Cacao Cultivation was an Alcoholic Beverage", "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. If the chocolate is low quality, the pulverized presscake will be mixed with vegetable fats, sugar, and flavorings to become substandard chocolate. Numerous types of candy and snacks contain chocolate, either as a filling (e.g., M&M's) or as a coating (e.g., chocolate-coated raisins or chocolate-coated peanuts). Generally, the chocolate is first heated to 45 °C (113 °F) to melt all six forms of crystals. [14] Cacao plantations spread, as the English, Dutch, and French colonized and planted. But it’s a far cry to say that chocolate is made from bug legs. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, and sugar. To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization. The process of creating chocolate is complex. The fermentation process, which takes up to seven days, also produces several flavor precursors, eventually resulting in the familiar chocolate taste. The main cacao-producing countries are the Ivory Coast and Ghana, although there are numerous smaller markets in South America and Africa. [114] Mars Incorporated, a large privately owned U.S. corporation, produces Mars Bar, Milky Way, M&M's, Twix, and Snickers. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes (such as eggs, hearts, coins) are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Easter, Valentine's Day, and Hanukkah. [14] Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute". Theobroma cacao means “food of the Gods,” and this name reflects both the heavenly taste of chocolate and the reverence Mayan and Aztec cultures had for this divine food. The more expensive chocolate tends to be processed longer and thus has a smoother texture and mouthfeel, regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added. [3] The English word "chocolate" comes, via Spanish, from the Classical Nahuatl word xocolātl.[4]. White chocolate does not contain any cocoa solids and is made simply of cocoa butter, sugar, and milk. Cocoa is the key ingredient in chocolate and chocolate confections. The first step to making any kind of chocolate or chocolate derivative, including white chocolate, is to obtain cocoa beans, which must undergo fermentation, drying, and roasting. Within about a hundred years, chocolate established a foothold throughout Europe. serving of coffee may contain 80–175 mg,[94] studies have shown psychoactive effects in caffeine doses as low as 9 mg,[95] and a dose as low as 12.5 mg was shown to have effects on cognitive performance. 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